1. Introduction

The ocean is a critical part of the global climate solution.

This project aims to demonstrate additional ways countries can meet or raise their ambition under the world’s most important climate treaty – the Paris Agreement.

The Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius will not be reached without the inclusion of ocean emissions and marine nature-based solutions in countries’ Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).

Ocean-based climate solutions have the potential to deliver almost a quarter of the annual greenhouse gas emission cuts as pledged under the Paris Agreement.

As the largest archipelagic country in the world and host to 17 per cent of the world’s blue carbon ecosystems, Indonesia is one of the most important countries in the world for ocean-based climate change mitigation.

Sustainable management of the ocean around Indonesia offers dual benefits of significant emissions mitigation while providing coastal communities with climate resilience.

To date, no country with a maritime sector and economy as large and multifaceted as Indonesia has attempted the substantial inclusion of ocean-based measures in its NDC.

Consequently this work, enhanced by Indonesia’s leadership value holding the G20 Presidency in 2022, also paves the way for other countries to pursue effective ocean-climate measures.

Our work seeks to support countries and the UNFCCC to raise the collective level of ambition and literacy on ocean-climate issues, alongside the recognition of the need and benefits of including the ocean in national climate mitigation strategies.

What we’re doing

The Southeast Asia Framework for Ocean Action in Mitigation (SEAFOAM) Indonesian pilot study will scope, convene, and present ocean-based climate mitigation options in Indonesia. 

The SEAFOAM Indonesian pilot study will:

  • develop options and pathways for Indonesian inclusion of ocean-based mitigation into their NDC
  • identify pilot projects that will allow for the realisation of community co-benefits through localised ocean-based mitigation and nature-based solutions
  • engage with government stakeholders in the development of a policy of ocean-based mitigation action and marine nature-based solution 

2. How we'll get there



Identify options for ocean-based mitigation action and marine nature-based solutions in Indonesia



Create an enabling environment for systemic inclusion of ‘blue’ solutions in climate action by convening and engaging with key decision-makers, including through a high level steering group


Develop pathways

Build on evidence-based research and analysis to develop pathways to enable enhanced ocean inclusion in climate action and governance to aid Indonesia in meeting their NDC ambitions


Adapt, extend and scale

Produce an adaptable and replicable framework to facilitate the scaling up of ocean ambitions beyond and across the region

3. Our partners

The program is led by Climateworks Centre and is supported by Quantedge Advancement Initiative.

5. Resources

Sea of opportunity: Ocean-based mitigation to support Indonesia’s climate ambition

This report assesses the mitigation potential of coastal and ocean areas and their contribution to Indonesia’s 'Second NDC', and suggests mechanisms for including the ocean in the forthcoming NDC. In addition to examining mitigation potential, it also provides details of key relevance to decision makers such as enabling and economic factors, scientific gaps and the likely flow-on effects.

  • Indonesia

Sea of opportunity: The role of ocean mitigation in Indonesia’s decarbonisation

Ocean-based climate mitigation could provide up to one-quarter of the emissions reductions needed to keep global warming below 1.5 degrees Celsius.

  • Indonesia

Indonesia can lead the way on ocean-based climate action. New Climateworks analysis and mapping shows how

Baca versi Bahasa Indonesia Ocean-based climate action can deliver up to a quarter of the global annual greenhouse gas emissions cuts pledged under the Paris Agreement.

  • Blog
  • ClimateWorks news

Indonesian ocean project secures involvement of both prominent marine scientist and leading environmental economist

A Climateworks project exploring ocean-based mitigation has secured the involvement of leading regional figures in marine science, climate policy and environmental economics.  Professor Luky Adrianto has been appointed as chair of the Indonesian stakeholder steering committee for Climateworks’ Southeast Asia Framework for Ocean Action in Mitigation (SEAFOAM) project. 

  • Media
  • Blog

The ocean is essential to tackling climate change. So why has it been neglected in global climate talks?

Climate change is commonly discussed as though it’s a uniquely atmospheric phenomena.

  • Media
  • Food, land and oceans